You might be surprised at how many tests eye doctors use to diagnose glaucoma. A proper diagnosis requires careful evaluation of many aspects of your eye’s health – from eye pressure to cornea thickness to the health of your optic nerve. This blog describes how your eye doctor assesses your risk and all the tests needed to properly diagnose glaucoma.
Your eye doctor will begin by assessing your risk level for developing glaucoma. This will help determine the frequency and extent of testing needed. Through a family history and medical questionnaire, the eye doctor is looking for the following risk factors:
Over age 60
Ethnic background is African or black Caribbean descent, Hispanic, or Asian
Family history of glaucoma, such as a sibling or parent with glaucoma
History of eye conditions, injuries or surgeries
Prolonged corticosteroid use (eyedrops, pills, inhalers or creams)
Chronic conditions that affect blood flow, such as migraines, diabetes, low blood
pressure or hypertension
Current or former smoker
If you’ve already had a comprehensive eye exam, your eye doctor will also consider these risk factors:
Eye pressure higher than normal (above 21 mm Hg)
Thin corneas (less than 0.5 millimeters)
Your type of eyesight is also important. People with farsightedness are more at risk for narrow- angle glaucoma, which is a more serious type that can advance quickly. Nearsightedness isassociated with open-angle glaucoma, which progresses slowly with no symptoms.
During a comprehensive eye exam, your eye doctor will always check for glaucoma, regardless of risk level. This provides a baseline for comparison as you age. There are two tests: tonometry and ophthalmoscopy.